plantain seed
Plantago is a genus of about 200 species of flowering plants in the family Plantaginaceae, commonly called plantains or fleaworts. The common name plantain is shared with the unrelated cooking plantain. Most are herbaceous plants, though a few are subshrubs growing to 60 cm (24 in) tall.

== Description ==
The leaves are sessile or have a poorly-defined petiole.: 632  They have three or five parallel veins that diverge in the wider part of the leaf. Leaves are broad or narrow, depending on the species. The inflorescences are borne on stalks typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, and can be a short cone or a long spike, with numerous tiny wind-pollinated flowers.

== Distribution ==
They are found all over the world, including the Americas, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Africa and Europe. Many species in the genus are cosmopolitan weeds. They are found in many different habitats, most commonly in wet areas like seepages or bogs. They can also be found in alpine and semi-alpine or coastal areas.

Let’s share with you a traditional Chinese medicine-Plantago Seed. Plantago Seed is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. “Shen Nong’s Materia Medica” is listed as top grade. There are two types of products: small plantago seeds and large plantago seeds.

1. Psyllium sylvestris
The source of Psyllium sylvestris: it is the dry mature seeds of the plantago sylvestris perennial herb.
The plant morphology of Psyllium sylvestris: the main root is obvious and often does not branch. The leaves are all basal. The stalk length is 1/3 or shorter of your blade. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate, 4~11 cm long, pointed at the apex, and narrow at the base into a stalk. The edges are sparsely serrated and wavy. The surface is green. 5~7 arc-shaped main fats that are nearly parallel. The flower has several branches in diameter, 10~30 cm high; the spike-like inflorescence has 1/2 or 1/3 long tail flower stem; the flower is light green, and the capsular cap is cracked. The seeds are usually 5, black and purple.
Producing area of ​​small plantago seeds: all over the country, mainly produced in Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Hebei and other places, and wild in mountains, roadsides, ridges and rivers.
Character identification of Psyllium sylvestris: The seeds are oval or irregularly oblong and fine grains, 1 to 1.5 mm long, less than one mm wide, with one side slightly convex and the other side slightly flat. The surface is brown or dark purple. Observed under an enlarged lens, a fine mesh pattern can be seen, and small white dots (commonly known as open eyes) can be seen in the slightly convex middle. It is hard in quality, slightly odorous, light in taste, and mucus in chewing. It is better to have full grains, purple-black color, and no impurities.
2, Big-grain Psyllium
The alias of Big-grain Psyllium: Jiangche, Guanche.
The source of large-grained Plantago: It is the dry mature seeds of the plantago plant, a perennial herbaceous plant of the Plantago family.
Plant morphology of Psyllium: It is basically similar to the previous species. The main difference is that the tap root is not obvious, and they are all fibrous roots. Up to 50 cm tall, the leaves are broad ovoid, with long stalks, which are equal to or longer than the leaves, and the base is slightly enlarged. The flower stems have several branches, 12 to 50 cm high. The capsule contains 4 to 8 seeds, and the rest is the same as the flat plant.
The origin of the big plantago seeds: Mainly produced in Jiangxi, Liaoning, Henan, Sichuan and other places, and are distributed throughout the country.
Character identification of large plantago seeds: The shape is similar to that of small plantago seeds. Only the particles are larger, 2 mm long and 1 mm wide. It is better to have big black particles and obvious white pits.
The main components of the big plantago seeds: containing plantagozi acid, plantagoside succinic acid, mucous quality. And contains a lot of mucus.
Efficacy and function of Psyllium sylvestris: 1. Diuretic. It can increase the excretion of water. At the same time, the excretion of urea, sodium chloride and uric acid also increases. However, some experiments failed to confirm this effect.
2. Nourishing. Slightly tonic, can benefit and supplement, that is, the so-called “facilitating urination without losing the breath”, which can benefit the yin and improve the eyesight, which may be related to the effect of the vitamin A substances contained in it.
Concoction: raw or sauteed in salt water.
Nature and flavor: sweet and cold.
Return meridian: Enter the liver, kidney, small intestine, and lung meridians.
Functions: Diuresis and dampness, clearing away heat and improving eyesight, reducing phlegm and relieving cough.
Indications: gonorrhea, diarrhea, diarrhea, red eyes, phlegm-heat and cough.
Clinical application: 1. It is used for the treatment of hot showers (acute urethritis, cystitis), which has diuretic and heat-clearing effects, and is often compatible with Qixu, Shiwei, etc. Both Bazhengsan and Shiweisan use Psyllium.
2. Used to treat nephritis and edema. Those who have difficulty in urinating and have symptoms of kidney deficiency should be prepared with achyranthes bidentata, rehmannia, dogwood, cinnamon, etc., and use Ji Shengshenqi Pills.
3. Used for ophthalmic diseases. Adding tonic drugs can invigorate the deficiency, and entering the solution table and clearing away heat can relieve the deficiencies. For example, it can be used with angelica, rehmannia, wolfberry, dodder, etc. to replenish qi and blood and treat pannus (senile cataract), such as adding and subtracting Zhujing pills. With scutellaria, gentian, Qianghuo, chrysanthemum, etc., it can clear the heat of the liver meridian and cure the eye haze, blood perfusion snails, shameful keratitis (equivalent to blister keratitis), and the prescription is like Psyllium.
Dosage: 3~15g is used as a decoction to be wrapped in cloth for decoction.
Prescription examples: 1. Jisheng Shenqi Pill (Jisheng Recipe): a proprietary medicine, 9~12g per serving, 1-2 times a day, with warm water, if it can be given with astragalus or dangshen decoction Better. As a decoction, the following prescriptions can be used: 9g of Achyranthes bidentata, 12g of Plantago Seeds (decoction), 12g of Chinese Yam, 12g of Yunling, 24g of Rehmannia, 9g of Cornus, 6g of Peony, 9g of Alisma, 9g of Aconite, Cinnamon 3g (baked), decocted in water.
2. Plantago Seed Powder (“Study on the Yao Letter”): Plantago Seed, Dense Meng Flower, Qianghuo, Tribulus Terrestris, Scutellaria, Chrysanthemum, Gentian, Cassia, Licorice, etc. are divided into the end, Each serving is 6g, and the rice soup is given after eating.
Note: There are two types of psyllium, the same size, for medicinal purposes, only the sales habits are different. The former is sold in East China, Central South, and Southwest China and exported to Chinese medicine physicians, while the latter is mainly sold in North China, Northeast, and Northwest provinces, and is commonly used in Beijing and Tianjin.
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